About 1.3 million Americans lost their employment benefits effective Saturday because Congress didn't extend them as part of a budget deal reached earlier this month.
Republican lawmakers balked at the program's $26 billion annual cost.
Friday, President Obama called Republican Sen. Dean Heller of Nevada and Democratic Sen. Jack Reed of Rhode Island, who are proposing to extend the benefits by three months, telling them he plans to push Congress to do it quickly.
Mr. Obama said the abrupt cut-off in cash assistance during the holidays will hurt economic growth and jobs. Economic adviser Gene Sperling said the Senate will hold a vote on the proposal as soon as Congress returns to work next month.